Web Application Architecture: The Basics You Need to Know

In general, a web application is responsible for data exchange between client-side and server-side services. It also combines both of them to provide a web service. For this, a framework called web application architecture is used. This architecture is responsible for the interaction or communication between the client-side and server-side components, such as user interface, middleware, and database. It is in line with the browser that is capable of running multiple websites. It is the backbone of our daily internet browsing.  

But do we know how this architecture works? What are its different types and the best practices to make more out of it? In this blog, let's discuss these things in detail to make your application better in terms of performance. 

Web application components 

Web application architectures are composed of several components that help build today’s Internet.  

  • User interface components   
  • Structural Components   
  • Client Component   
  • Server component   

The user interface components create the visual effect of the webpage. It is the foundation for creating a better user experience. It includes dashboards, statistical data, notification elements, layouts, activity tracking, and other elements. On the other hand, the structure components help in linking the client browser and servers like the application server, database server, and web server. 

The client is a representation of the web application functionality that the user is having interaction. The browser deals with application performance and interaction with the client. Here both of them are developed in HTML, JavaScript, or CSS, and it does not need any operating system. 

The server is the central controller to manage layered applications. The server is built using PHP, Python, Java, Ruby, NodeJS, etc. The application server decides the business logic and how the data can be presented on the website. The database server provides storage data for all the applications. 

How does a web application architecture work?  

For any web application, there will be two different codes running on browsers to fulfill the user requirements. They are:  

Client-side: Code on the browser that responds only to user input 

Server-side: Code on the server that responds to HTTP requests  

The server-side code must be synchronized with the client-side code to respond to the client’s requests in the form of the HTTP request. The server-side code is responsible for creating web pages based on the user request. It also stores all the data like user details, and input data from the user. It can’t be seen by the end-user.  

Client-side code is available for the end-user which can be modified by them. In general, it reacts to the user input. This code is parsed by the web browser to the server. 

Types of web application architecture 

Web application components are the integral part of a web app and they always work simultaneously. Depending on how the web app logic is spread among the client and server sides, there can be different types of web application architecture as mentioned below:  

  • Single-Page Applications   
  • Micro-services  
  • Serverless architecture  

Single-page Applications  

The single-page application uses a dynamic framework that only updates the data that the user has requested in the existing pages. This helps in avoiding sidetracking in the user experience and improves the performance of the web application. With the help of the SPA, the user can experience faster interaction along with content reloading. 

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, which is the foundation for page communications makes SPAs possible.   

Micro-services 

Micro-services are small and lightweight services that execute specific single functionality. They allow users to enhance productivity and speed. They do not build services using a single programming language, so they need not depend on each other.  

Hence, developers can have free pick up on a technology stack of choice. This architecture is mainly focused on the de-coupling, which helps in pushing the content to different places easily. An application can remain for a long time with no-fault.  

Serverless Architectures 

Serverless application architecture consults a third-party cloud infrastructure service provider for outsourcing services and infrastructure management. The benefit of this approach is that it allows applications to execute the code logic without bothering with the infrastructure-related tasks. 

The serverless architecture is the best when the development company doesn’t want to manage or support the servers and the hardware; they have developed for the web application. 

Best Practices for Perfect Web Application Architecture  

Any web application in a working state can’t be labeled as the best. There is more than a working ability that makes a web application worthy to be called great. Here is something you need to consider while developing the web application:  

  • Make architecture as simple as possible.  
  • Avoid frequent crashes of the application  
  • Have a scale-up architecture  
  • Provide faster response time  
  • Use automated deployment methods  
  • Make use of the latest technology and trends  
  • Provide high security  
  • Persistency in data  
  • Support for test-driven development  
  • Have a robust and secured web application   

Importance of web application architecture  

For the web development process, there are many varieties of frameworks available to choose from. Web applications give access to the broader audience regardless of the device used by the clients. However, traditional web development has changed and new structures and components are used for creating web applications. So, it is important to choose the right architecture, which determines the performance of the web application. 

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